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Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The average altitude is about 1000 meters. Most of the area has a savanna climate, and the west has a desert and semi-desert climate. The average annual temperature is 21℃. The average annual precipitation is 400 mm. lack of water.
Botswana is rich in solar energy resources. The development and utilization of solar energy is an important part of Botswana's energy strategy, and it is also an important way for Botswana to increase the self-sufficiency rate of electricity, promote rural electrification and achieve the goals of the climate change agreement.
Botswana has been experimenting with solar power since the 1990s, launching its first pilot project in 1992, although efforts to develop and utilize solar energy have continued since then. There are only three solar grid-connected power generation systems in Botswana, namely the Pakrani solar photovoltaic power station with a power generation capacity of 1,300 kilowatts, the solar power generation system of the Clean Energy Research Center of the University of Botswana with a power generation capacity of 20 kilowatts, and an office area with a power generation capacity of 34 kilowatts. The Sun can generate a system. In addition, there are some small-scale distributed solar power generation systems that provide electricity for tourist spots, businesses, homes and farms. Up to now, the total installed capacity of grid-connected and non-grid-connected solar photovoltaic power generation systems in Botswana is 5,000 kilowatts, and the average annual power generation is less than 0.2% of Botswana's electricity demand.
Data from the Botswana Bureau of Statistics show that in 2019, Botswana's electricity self-sufficiency rate was 55.8%. In recent years, South Africa, the main source of Botswana's electricity imports, has experienced power shortages, and Botswana's power supply pressure has continued to grow. The development of the solar photovoltaic power generation industry has become an important option for Botswana to make up for the lack of power supply and reduce import dependence.
Botswana is a signatory of the Paris Agreement on climate change and has set a goal of increasing the proportion of new energy to 25% by 2025, solar power generation capacity reaching 250 megawatts and reducing carbon emissions to zero by 2036. In addition, Botswana has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 15% by 2030 in the UNFCCC climate action plan. The development and utilization of new energy, including solar energy, is an inevitable choice for Botswana to fulfill its international commitments, establish an international image and address climate change.
According to the 2019 Annual Report of the Botswana Electricity Company, as of now, 20% of the villages in Botswana are not connected to the national grid. Botswana is a vast land and sparsely populated, and the advantages of small distributed solar power generation systems in vast rural areas are prominent, which can effectively improve the level of rural electrification.
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