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Street lamp encyclopedia-Zhongshan ALLTOP Lighting CO
Street lamp composition
It consists of lamps, wires, light sources, lamp poles, lamp arms, flanges, and foundation embedded parts as a whole.
A brief history of street lights
The crowds on the bank of the Huangpu River went to see the demeanor. Later, the street lights in the Shanghai Concession were changed to gas lights. Transplanted from London, the brightness is several times higher than that of kerosene lamps. In the eyes of pedestrians at night, it is simply the 'sun' at night. It was not until 1879 that China’s first electric light was finally lit at the Shanghai Pudong 16 Pier, equipped with a 10-horsepower internal combustion engine generating unit, equivalent to the power of a walking tractor.
At the beginning, the street lights were equipped with a knife switch on each electric pole, and workers still needed to turn it on and off every day. Three years later, a switch was used for several street lamps. This form of street lamps continued to be used in cities across the country until the 1950s.
United Kingdom: As humans tried to artificially illuminate city streets in the early 15th century. In 1417, in order to brighten the dark night of London in winter, the Mayor of London Henry Barton issued an order requiring lamps and lanterns to be hung outside. Later, his initiative received the support of the French. At the beginning of the 16th century, lighting fixtures had to be installed outside the windows of Parisian houses facing the street. At Louis XIV, many street lights appeared on the streets of Paris. In 1667, Louis XIV, known as the 'Sun King', also officially promulgated the city road lighting decree. Legend has it that it was precisely because of the promulgation of this decree that the reign of Louis XIV was called the 'Era of Light' in French history.
1. According to the height of street lights: high pole lights, middle pole lights, road lights, courtyard lights, lawn lights, underground lights;
2. According to the material of street lamp pole: hot-dip galvanized iron street lamp, hot-dip galvanized steel street lamp and stainless steel street lamp;
3. According to the street light source: sodium lamp street lamp, LED street lamp, energy-saving street lamp, new Suoming xenon street lamp.
4. Divided by shape: Chinese lamp, antique lamp, landscape lamp, single-arm street lamp, double-arm street lamp.
5. According to the power supply mode: city circuit lights, solar street lights, wind and solar hybrid street lights
Street lights involve lighting technology and are suitable for street lights. The purpose is to design a high-efficiency electronic energy-saving street lamp with long life, low power consumption, high power factor and low current harmonic content. The high-efficiency electronic energy-saving street lamp includes the power grid high-voltage discharge branches R1, C1, rectifier bridges D1-D4, power factor correction branches C2, D5, D6, high and intermediate frequency glitch filter branches L1, L3, and high-frequency oscillation circuit connected in sequence BG1-BG2, start branch L2, C7 and lamp T; compared with previous street lamps, it can save electricity by 80%; harmonic content THD<25%, extending lamp life up to 3-4 times.
Street lamps are usually divided into types according to the shape of the light emitted. The specific division method is recommended by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) according to three items: projection, expansion, and control.
① Projection. Indicates the degree of diffusion of the light emitted by the lamp along the longitudinal direction of the road, which can be divided into three types: short, medium and long.
②Expansion. Indicates the degree of spread of the light emitted by the lamp in the lateral direction of the road, which can be divided into three types: narrow, normal and wide.
③Control. Indicates the degree of glare control of the lamp, which can be divided into three types: limited, medium, and strict.
There are several ways to install street lights, such as bracket type, tall type, straight pole type, suspension cable type and wall suction type, etc.
Total output and development
The stock of street lamps in China is 28-30 million. In recent years, the number of new street lights every year is 15%-20%, about 3 million-6 million. According to the number of newly added street lights each year are all LED lamps, each 1000-2000 yuan, the annual increase is 3 billion-6 billion yuan. The failure rate of LED street lights using more than 6000 hours is less than 1%. Lighting accounts for about 19% of electricity consumption in the world. If the efficiency of the global lighting system is doubled compared to the existing one, it can be said to be equivalent to removing half of Europe's electricity consumption and heat output. A global independent test has been established a few days ago, and LED street lights can save up to 85% of energy. In December 2011, my country produced 250 million sets of lamps and lighting devices, a year-on-year increase of 12.45%. From January to December 2011, the national output of lamps and lighting devices reached 2.5 billion sets, a year-on-year increase of 6.38%. From the perspective of the output of various provinces and cities, from January to December 2011, the output of lamps and lighting devices in Zhejiang Province reached 1.07 billion sets, an increase of 9.13% year-on-year, accounting for 42.40% of the total output of the country; the output of lamps and lighting devices in Guangdong Province reached 1.07 billion sets. 870 million sets, a year-on-year decrease of 4.44%, accounting for 34.43% of the country’s total output. In 2011, the Chinese LED market will grow from USD 4.7 billion in 2010 to USD 5.8 billion, an increase of 23%. LED has become a popular product made in China and an attractive investment area. In addition, government support for the industry seems to be having an effect. It is estimated that China’s LED market will reach US$6.9 billion in 2012 and reach US$11.1 billion in 2015, with a compound annual growth rate of 17.7% from 2010 to 2015. The construction of street lamps in my country has achieved rapid development, the quality of road lighting has been continuously improved, and high-intensity gas discharge lamps have been widely used. This has contributed to improving my country’s investment environment, promoting rapid economic development, facilitating people’s lives, beautifying the city and being an export-oriented modern city The construction of the city played a big role.
According to the online data of 51 report, the total number of street lamps in China is 9,186,356. The annual electricity consumption of urban lighting (only for functional lighting such as landscape lighting and street lights) accounts for about 4% to 5% of China's total power generation, which is equivalent to the annual power generation capacity of the Three Gorges Hydropower Project under construction (85 billion kWh) ). Street lights will be the largest application field, reaching 1.5 billion US dollars in 2011 and is expected to reach 1.8 billion US dollars in 2012. In 2012, with the pressure of energy saving and emission reduction, the acceptance of LED street lamps increased significantly. Local governments are speeding up the promotion of LED street lights. Chongqing plans to install 50,000 LED street lights within two years; Henan Zhengzhou plans to promote the installation of 78,000 LED street lights by 2015; Jiangsu Yangzhou plans to use LED lighting products for 100% of sub-main road lighting and community lighting by 2015, and 30% of the city The main road lighting, using LED lighting products, the demand for LED street lamps reached 50,000; Hainan Province plans to replace 210,000 street lamps with LED street lamps by the end of 2012; not only domestic, but also many foreign countries have started energy saving and emission reduction in 2012. According to the plan, the promotion of LED street lights is one of the main measures of the energy saving and emission reduction plan. In 2012, the total output of LED street lights in China will reach 1.22 million, a year-on-year increase of 79%. As the most critical component of LED street lights, LED street light drive power will also develop rapidly in 2012 with the rapid promotion of LED street lights. It will be an opportunity for LED street light drive power companies that have technology and financial strength as support. . It is predicted that by 2020, LED's share of China's lighting market will reach 80%, and my country will become the world's largest LED lighting market, with a market size of more than one trillion yuan. From January to December 2011, the national output of lamps and lighting devices reached 2.5 billion sets. In 2012, it was 2.8 billion sets. By 2016, the output will reach 4 billion sets. The market demand has expanded from 2 billion sets in 2011 to 2.4 billion sets in 2012. It is expected that the market demand will exceed 3.5 billion sets in 2016.
The height determines the field of view, so choosing a good height determines the lighting field of view of the street lamp.
1. The installation height of the lamps and lanterns on the same street must be the same (the height of the luminous center to the ground). Small curved lights One meter light 5-6 meters ordinary street long arm lights and chandeliers 6.5-7.5 meters fast lane arc lights not less than 8 meters slow lane arc lights not less than 6.5 meters
2. The special lamp type is installed according to the design requirements, and the height of the lamp is roughly equivalent to the width of the road to be illuminated. When lighting on one side only H≌L when lighting on both sides H≌L/2 where H: lamp installation height (m) L: road width (m)
Lamp elevation angle
1. The elevation angle of the lamp is determined by the street width and the light distribution curve of the lamp, and the elevation angle of each street should be the same.
2. When the lamp holder is adjustable, the center line of the light source should fall within the range of L/3-1/2 of the road width.
3. For the long arm lamp (or support arm lamp), after the lamp body is installed, the lamp holder side should be 100 mm higher than the pole side.
4. For special lamps, the elevation angle of the lamp should be determined according to the light distribution curve.
Lamps and lanterns part
1. The lamps should be firm and upright, and no looseness or skewing should be avoided.
2. The lampshade should be intact and not broken.
3. The enamel lamp umbrella is corroded and deformed should be replaced.
4. The reflector of the lamp fails and should be replaced.
5. The reflector of the lamp should not be damaged or deformed during the transportation and installation. The lampshade should be added with rubber ring, and the lamp should be bright. When the lamp socket is broken and exposed copper, it should be replaced.
6. The lamp and the lamp body cannot be bent. The fixing screws of each part need to be tightened with spring eyeliner. No loosening is allowed.
7. The cast iron lamp cap has cracks, and it cannot be used if it falls off. It is unqualified without rubber.
8. The lamp body hoop should be suitable for the pole, and the device should not be too long.
9. The transparent cover and reflector of the lamp body should be cleaned and wiped clean during maintenance, and those that cannot be cleaned on site should be replaced.
10. The buckle of the transparent cover should be complete and easy to use to prevent the cover from falling off and apply a reliable hook.
11. Dust-proof felt strips for lamps and lanterns should be complete.
12. The lamp tuo and the lamp tube flange must be matched with cracks and scars, the screws must be complete, and the length of the bolt should be able to penetrate the lamp tuo flange.
13. When a lamp is suitable for bulbs of different specifications, the fixed point of the lamp socket should be adjusted to the same position as the capacity of the bulb to obtain the best light distribution curve.
14. There is no serious corrosion, cracks, scars, etc. of all kinds of iron parts. Those who have peeled off the paint should remove rust and paint or galvanize.
15. The lead wire of the lamp cap of the enclosed lamp should be protected by a heat-resistant insulating tube (asbestos tube or porcelain tube).
1. Insulated sheathed wire should be used for vertical sheathed wire, copper core shall not be less than 1.37 mm, aluminum core shall not be less than 1.76 mm.
2. When connecting an overhead wire, the vertical leather wire should be symmetrically overlapped on both sides of the pole, and the overlap point should be 400-600mm away from the center of the pole, and the two sides should be consistent.
3. The method of connecting the vertical line to the power supply side
4. If the vertical leather wire is more than four meters, it should be fixed with a support in the middle, using no less than 7/1.0 insulated stranded wire, and connected to the single-cross binding method in the standard issued by the bureau.
5. When the trunk line and the vertical line are of different metals, alternate tie wires should be used as the transition joint bow, and the longest bow should not exceed 100 mm.
6. The vertical leather wire should have a black tie wire at the insulating support. It is not allowed to wind it with this wire.
7. Plastic pipe should be added to the iron pipe or gray rod hole of the power cord, and the pipe length should not be less than 200 mm.
8. The volley section of the vertical line can have at most one joint, and the joint is wound around 5-7 times on both sides, and covered with rubber cloth. Different specifications cannot be butted.
9. The power cord that penetrates into the iron pipe and rod hole has no joints.
10. Standing lines are not allowed to pass between high-voltage lines.
11. The vertical line of the transformer pole close to the high-voltage lead requires 7/1.0 insulated stranded wire, and the tie wire should be wrapped around 30-50 mm after the back buckle at its connection with the main trunk line.
12. The vertical lines of street lights should be tied tightly, neatly and appropriately, and those with broken skin and bare lines should be replaced.
13. When the vertical line of the street lamp and the household receiving line swing at the maximum, the distance between them shall not be less than 50 mm.
14 When connecting the vertical wire to the power supply, the bow should be tightened with pliers during construction and maintenance.
15. At each crimping screw of capacitor and ballast, two thread ends can be pressed at most, and the bending direction of the thread ends should be clockwise and pressed with flat pads.
16. The zero line of the vertical line of the street lamp is forbidden to overlap with the zero line of the user connection line to prevent the power supply from the user table when the zero line is disconnected.
17. The lighting of public toilets shall be implemented in accordance with the standard of household connection line issued by the bureau.
18. After the horizontal line and the vertical line of the long arm lamp (big carry lamp) are tied back on the same bottle, the transition bow should be left.
1. All street lights must be protected by fuse and installed on the live wire.
2. For lamps with ballasts and capacitors, the fuse must be installed on the outside of the ballast and electric fuse.
3. Mercury lamps of 250 watts and below, 5 amp fuse for incandescent lamps. A 250 watt sodium lamp can use a 7.5 ampere fuse. 10 Ampere fuse for 400 watt sodium lamp.
4. The incandescent chandelier should be equipped with two fuses, 10 amperes at the pole and 5 amperes at the lamp holder.
2 13 Black tie wire 1.0M/M 1.5M
Folding long arm light
1. The long arm lamp hoop must wear a double female, which should be firmly fixed with the pole, and it is not allowed to rotate.
2. The lamp body should be straight and all screws should be tightened. The angle between the branch line and the lamp body should not be less than 330°, and the lamp body should be perpendicular to the road.
3. After the long-arm lamp body is installed, the front end should be flexed by about 100M/M.
4. The horizontal line of the long arm lamp should be tight and flat.
5. At the junction of the horizontal line and the vertical line of the long arm lamp, there must be a transition bow.
6. Ballasts, capacitors, and lamp insurance must be installed at the lamp holder.
Insulation test→street lamp installation→electrical equipment installation→test, pressure test→self-inspection, completion and acceptance of the electrical system, according to the order of civil construction, do a good job of concealed cable pre-embedded pipes, and at the same time, do a good job of preventing the pre-embedded pipe from being blocked.
1. Insulation test: Use a shaker to remotely measure the insulation resistance between the wires and the ground to check whether the cable is in good condition and whether there is any leakage. All test values ??should meet the specification requirements. After the remote measurement is completed, the core wire should be discharged to the ground. The end of the cable should be sealed with rubber cloth and then wrapped with tape.
2. Street lamp installation:
(1) The installation height (from the light source to the ground), the elevation angle, and the installation direction of the street lights at the same location should be consistent.
(2) The longitudinal centerline of the luminaire installation and the longitudinal centerline of the lamp arm should be consistent, and the horizontal horizontal line of the luminaire should be parallel to the ground, and there should be no skew visually after tightening.
(3) The lamp holder is firmly fixed, the adjustable lamp holder should be adjusted to the correct position according to the design, and the lamp holder wiring should comply with the regulations
(4) All kinds of nuts should be fastened with washers and spring washers.
3. Installation of electrical equipment:
(1) After the materials arrive at the site, they will be inspected after unpacking, and they can be installed and used after passing the inspection.
(2) The center line of the moving contact and the static contact should be consistent, and the contact should be in close contact.
(3) The switching contact of the secondary circuit auxiliary switch should be accurate and reliable in contact.
(4) The mechanical and electrical locking actions should be accurate and reliable.
(5) The grounding system must be firm and reliable and meet the requirements of drawings and specifications.
4. Test and pressure test: The debugging equipment, meters, and instruments must be inspected and qualified by relevant units recognized by the state with metrological qualifications, and they must be used and kept by special personnel.
(1) The insulation test of the electrical circuit must be qualified, the impedance matching is proper, the wiring is correct, and the markings are clear and complete.
(2) The meter should be sensitive, accurate in measurement, correct in zero position, indicating accuracy, deterioration, and recording accuracy in accordance with the requirements of the manual.
(3) After the installation is completed, check and confirm that it is correct before proceeding to the itemized debugging.
(4) After each sub-item debugging is completed, system debugging, linkage debugging, and trial operation can be carried out.
Disadvantages of folding LED lights
With the country’s emphasis on energy conservation and emission reduction and the urgency of energy-saving transformation, Guangdong Province will also vigorously promote LED street lamps, while the LED street lamp scheme promoted by Guangdong Province has been widely questioned. The reason is that LED street lamp products have many problems, such as: light decay, heat dissipation problems, light ability, etc.
Problems with domestic LED street lights:
Insufficient energy-saving light
The LED street lamp has a unique secondary optical design, which irradiates the light of the LED street lamp to the area that needs to be illuminated, and further improves the light efficiency to achieve the purpose of energy saving.
Energy saving is the energy saved under the same average illuminance. This average illuminance cannot be just the average illuminance on the ground! The light intensity of the space has a good advance prediction for vehicles coming from a distance to prevent traffic accidents! But at present, the domestic market The installed LED street lights sacrifice illuminance to achieve energy saving.
The street lamp is used outdoors, so it must be waterproof and dustproof, so the lamp must be sealed. After the seal, the temperature of the water vapor in the lamp exceeds 100 degrees under extreme weather conditions. The LED street lamp works continuously in an environment of L temperature. If the heat dissipation of the LED street lamp is not done well , The lamp is very easy to be broken or the light decay is serious. In 2014, the heat dissipation and waterproof problems of domestic high-power LED street lights were solved by Puwei respirators, reducing the subsequent maintenance costs of the products.
In rainy and foggy days, the ability of LED light lines to penetrate fog is not strong.
Easy to attract mosquitoes
Because mosquitoes particularly like the light of certain wavelengths of LED lights, there is a phenomenon of moths fighting the fire, which will affect its light efficiency.
To sum up: LED as a new light source has irreplaceable advantages in replacing incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, but there are still some problems in the use of high-power LED street lamps. The promotion of radical and comprehensive replacement of LED street lights (especially on main roads) may cause sequelae. If extreme weather is encountered, a large number of lights may be broken or severe light degradation may affect road safety.
The author believes that LED street lights are not suitable for lighting on urban main roads, but can be used as auxiliary roads or secondary roads. Small-scale use on non-main roads is not only to support the led industry, but also to accumulate experience in the future. We are afraid that the Great Leap Forward will harm the public interest.
The first is whether the heat dissipation of the led street lamp is reasonable (this mainly depends on whether the heat dissipation aluminum of the lamp holder is sufficient)
Secondly, look at what brand of led lamp beads, there is a big gap between good and bad.
The third is to see what the driving power supply of the led street lamp is. A good power supply saves power and has a long life. It is almost hard to say.
Xenon Street Light
Power factor: >0.99 Xenon lamps are 30% energy-saving than LED lamps, 68% energy-saving than metal halide lamps, and 70% energy-saving than induction lamps and high-pressure sodium lamps
High color rendering
The color rendering index is 92Ra, and its spectrum is very close to the spectrum of sunlight. It is called 'artificial small sun', which is suitable for human visual perception and is not easy to cause visual fatigue.
Wide color temperature
The color temperature ranges from 3000K to 12000K, of which 4300K and 6000K are the most ideal color temperatures.
The lamp life is 12000-30000 hours.
Strong homogeneity, low calorie, no pollution.
Large luminous flux
Luminous efficiency 95-120LM/W.
Low light attenuation
The annual luminous decay is only 3%, and the lumen maintenance rate: more than 90% for 8000 hours
The switch lights up when it is turned on, and frequent lighting has no effect.
It can be started cold or hot.
The input voltage range is AC 180~260V, and the voltage fluctuation has no effect on the luminous flux and life span.
Ballast protection function
Open circuit, short circuit, EOL protection; unique lightning protection (thunder swimming, thunder rolling, direct lightning), protection measures against strong electric common mode interference.