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simple solar circuits

by:ALLTOP      2019-11-23
Every spring, I collect the emergency lights and my neighbors throw them in the garbage after the lights stop working.
Those that only require minor repairs, those that I have repaired, and those that require major repairs, I peel off the parts and reverse engineer the circuit board.
Most of the circuits used in auto-decreasing garden lights are simple in design and easy to reverse engineer.
I can do more to fix the solar cells.
The lamp consists of three basic circuits, a charging circuit, a dark detection circuit to turn on and off the LED driver, and an LED driver.
Some LED drivers have added a voltage multiplier or voltage booster to the LED driver circuit from 1.
2 volts is not enough for superbright LEDs.
Now, start adding solar energy to your small electronics project and use the night lights, garden lights and other automated decorations or projects that solar power your battery.
These circuits are easy to build and work on.
It\'s fun to build and teach your kids how to use light.
In the last step, I control the 5 volt motor with 1.
2 volt battery and light IC.
As long as you are in the ball park, most of the circuits in this walkable job can work, so it\'s easy to replace the parts and get the circuits to work. Transistors;
These circuits can use almost any universal low-power transistor.
2N2222, 2N3904, 2nym1, S9013, S8050, BC546, BC547 or similar PNP transistor2n2 907, 2n39
Almost any general-purpose switch or other low-power diodes can be used for these circuits, but the voltage drop of the Schottky diode is low and works well.
1N4001 to 1N4007 series, 1N914 to 1N4448 series, 1N5817 to 1N5819 series. Resistors;
You need a variety of resistors for these circuits, most of which only need watt, according to which you make a watt resistor circuit for circuits above 3 volts, which is occasionally required.
The resistance does not need to be accurate, so it can work if the schematic requires a 50-inch resistor, a 47-inch resistor, or a 51-inch resistor.
There is a lot of room to play in these circuits.
50 LEDs, 100 LEDs, 150 LEDs, LED lights with current limiting resistors.
1 k, 2 k, 5 k, 6.
8 k LEDs, 10 K MOSFETs, 15 K MOSFETs, 22 K MOSFETs, 47 K MOSFETs, 100k MOSFETs, 1 m MOSFETs, most of these resistors, you will only need the Circuit of the monthly resistor, but it\'s always nice add-on.
If you salvage garden lights like me, you should have a lot. 1 ultra-
Bright LED will be more if you are working on more than one project, color LED will be more if you like, just for fun, kids love beautiful colors.
1 Switch Battery and bracket solar battery 1 bread plate for testing.
1 Multi-metering capacitor;
A must for a voltage multiplier. 1.
2nF, 100pF, 1 each. InductorsTwo 0.
47 mHOne 22 mfu you make the circuit in the garden light IC data sheet, you need the parts listed in the data sheet.
The first part of the solar circuit is a solar cell or other device that collects light and uses light;
I have collected quite a few solar cells and solar panels, most of which have been salvaged from solar garden lights rescued from garbage.
Many of them were repaired by me, ranging from 1.
5 v solar cells to 6 v solar cells, more than 20 mA to 100 mA.
Now that you have solar cells, it\'s time to figure out what you can do with them.
You do this by checking the voltage and amps generated by the solar cells.
In the best possible sun, adjust the cells to a 90 ° angle close to the sun.
It\'s just a small cloud on the sun, or if the cell does not face the sun at 90 ° angle, it will affect the output of the cell.
Never check the voltage or current of the unloaded solar cell, which means not just connect the meter lead to the solar cell lead.
The unloading meter will misinterpret the current through it as a voltage and will give you a much higher voltage than the voltage generated by the solar cell.
Starting with connecting the solar cell to the resistor, the resistor can be of any size.
I chose a resistance of 51 kWh because I want to check the current with the same resistance.
Then measure the voltage at both ends of the resistor, and now you can get a more accurate output voltage between 1. 5 to 3 volts.
Current for next Test;
Never test the power supply current without load is always a good practice, dead angle is often harmful to electronic devices.
With a 51-inch resistor attached to my circuit, I get a fairly accurate current of 25 to 65 mA.
The impact of dead shorts on solar cells is small;
Most solar cells convert less than 8% of solar energy into electricity.
If your battery is dead, the current will keep climbing until something goes off and if your power is dead, the current will keep climbing until something goes off.
If you connect the amp meter to the battery without load, with a solar cell, the current will climb like a battery or power supply, but once the current reaches 8% of the solar energy, the current will stop climbing.
That doesn\'t mean it\'s safe in all cases, it\'s just that some solar cells won\'t be damaged by it.
Since solar cells are salvaged from solar garden lights, most solar cells are divided into two groups; 1.
5 V and 3 V batteries, but the current is different in both groups, 25 mA, 35 mA and 65 mA respectively.
Now that you have the basic spots of solar cells, it\'s time to look at the batteries that these solar cells charge.
1 battery.
2 Volt NiCads with capacity of 200 mAh, 300 mAh, 600 mAh and 1000 mAh.
When you match the battery to a solar cell, all you need for a charging circuit is a diode.
In order to charge the large capacity of the NiCad battery or battery pack, it is recommended to charge the battery at the speed listed on the battery label.
But when you don\'t have these instructions, follow the charge for C/10.
To achieve full charging of the NiCad battery, it must be charged at a rate equal to or greater than C/10.
Where C = battery capacity in mAh.
For example: a 1000 mAh battery requires a charging rate of 1000/10 or 100 mA or higher.
Charging at speeds below C/10 does not cause the battery to fully charge. a current-
Technically, the limiting resistance between the solar panel and the battery is necessary, which is not necessary if the battery is not overcharged.
In our case, the solar cell does not overcharge the battery.
These solar cells should be able to charge 1.
2 volts, battery, or 2 1.
The 20 mA mAh battery is connected in series with a 2 Volt battery at a speed of 200, the 30 mA mAh battery is connected in series at a speed of 300, and the 60 mA mAh battery is connected in series at a speed of 600.
The charging circuit for these batteries is simple, the solar cell is connected to the diode and then to the NiCad battery.
The diodes isolate the battery from the solar cell so that when the sun does not come out, the solar cell does not run out of battery.
You can use almost any switching diode in this circuit, and you can use a circuit that is more efficient than the diode voltage drop,, it\'s hard for you to do this as easily or at a price as 1N5817 schottky barrier diode.
Dark detection LED drive circuit, it is easy to add the dark detection capability to the solar circuit, because the solar panel can be used directly as a sensor to determine when the darkness is outside.
To switch, you need to have a diode between the transistor base and its emitter ,(PNP Transistor)
Or collectors ,(NPN Transistor).
The diodes isolate the base of the transistor from the battery, so only solar cells supply power to the base of the transistor.
In this circuit, I use the PNP transistor as Q1, which is controlled by the voltage output of the solar panel.
When the weather is fine, the output of the solar cell is very high at the bottom of the transistor, which will turn on the transistor and turn off the LED.
When it is dark;
The solar cell voltage drops to zero, the current flows out from the bottom of the transistor and is grounded through the solar cell, which turns off the transistor and lets the current connect through the LED.
When there is not enough current at the bottom to damage the solar cell, the circuit is ideal for low power applications.
However, when a circuit at the bottom of the PNP transistor produces a higher current, you can run out of solar cells.
With a higher current, you don\'t want the current to go through the solar cell from the bottom of Q1, or you have the risk of burning out the solar cell.
When you use a pnjunction transistor, the current is transmitted from the solar cell to the base of q1.
This circuit uses a solar cell for dark detection, when the solar cell is in the sun, it charges the battery and turns on the LED, or turns off the LED when the solar cell is in the dark, do not charge the battery.
When the solar cell generates power, the power is applied to the base and collector of Q1 and the transistor switch is off and the LED is lit.
When the solar cell is in the dark without generating power, there is no power to reach the Q1s base and the transistor turns the LED on and off.
This is a good charging indication circuit, but since the sun has to go out to light the LED, it won\'t be a good night light.
When the switch is off, the circuit is an LED driver using a pnp transistor, the power flow to the base, and the collector of Q2 lights up the superbright LED.
Circuit and ultra-when the switch is on-
Bright LED turned off.
When you combine the LED drive circuit without charging indicating the LED and dark detection circuit; the ultra-
When the solar cell does not charge the circuit, the bright LED lights up.
Now, when the light hits the solar cell, it supplies the base of Q1 closed Q1 and reduces the base voltage of Q2 to an open Q2 close to zero voltsbright LED off.
When the solar cell is in the dark, there is no power supply at the bottom of Q1 opening Q1 and increases the voltage to Q2 to turn off the bottom of Q2 and turn overbright LED on.
Now you have an automatic light on and off.
If you miss the over-calibrated R1 and R2, there is a drawback to this circuit
The bright LED can appear in the sun with a very low drop or only in full darkness.
Calibrate the light level of SuperSpeed
Bright LED on and off, adjust the value of R1 up or down until Super
The bright LED changes state at the desired level of light.
This circuit is slightly different from the one that uses solar cells for dark detection;
The circuit uses the photoelectric resistance of the dark sensor to replace the solar cell.
Now the diodes are right after the solar cells, so Q1 and Q2 are powered by the batteries.
The advantage of this circuit is that the dark sensing LED driver can be in one position and the solar cell charging circuit can be in another position.
The value of R1 changes with the light, its value decreases with the increase of the amount of light, and as the amount of light decreases, its value rises.
This action of R1 changes the power applied to the bottom of Q1 and allows Q1 to control the over
Turn on and off bright led in cycle.
Since the value of R1 changes with the light, and R2 is fixed, in order to calibrate the dark induction circuit, you can adjust the value of R2 up or down to adjust the super
Bright LED on or off.
To switch Q1 from a PNP transistor to a PNP transistor, you need to replace R1 with R2 and R2 with R1 to make the circuit work with automatic lighting.
No matter what circuit you use.
2 volts is not enough power.
Bright LEDs, you need a Joules thief or voltage booster built into the LED driver.
This circuit increases the voltage so 1.
The 2 Volt battery will be ultra-bright LEDs.
The circuit does not provide DC voltage to the LED, but provides high-Frequency pulse.
This will generate the same brightness from the LED as the constant DC voltage, while only less than 50% of the energy is needed to achieve a single 1.
2 volt battery to use.
Since the circuit is not used for the resistance of the LED, the efficiency of the circuit is further improved.
Now you have a 1.
The 2 volt LED driver is a simple thing to connect the dark detection circuit to the LED driver.
The Ethernet of the dark detection circuit works, when the solar cell or photoelectric resistor is turned off in the lamp Q1, reduce the base of Q2 to close to 0 volts, turn on the transistor and turn off the LED driver.
The solar integrated circuits are very convenient, they have a small four-pin assembly with a built-in dark detection circuit and a voltage multiplier LED driver.
With solar light ic, all you need is Solar IC, inductor and super
LED that makes the circuit bright.
With batteries and solar cells, you have solar lights.
I didn\'t find the data sheet for solar lights ICs, none of the three I found were in English.
In addition to the inductor, it also controls the power of the LED.
When I first tried the IC, I used the PC817 optical coupler to connect the Solar IC circuit to a more powerful LED.
The Solar IC will constantly trigger and turn on the LED until I add the 1N4148 switching diode to the optical coupler input. Now the 1.
The 2 volt Solar IC turns on and off the more powerful LED cleanly.
It is not impressive to turn on the LED with solar LED, so I remove the super
Bright LED and its resistance, and connect the motor in place.
If you watch this video, you can see the circuit that is running.
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