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MPPT solar controller and PWM solar controller difference
2022-08-17

Solar controller is mainly used for solar off-grid power generation system, can automatically control multiple solar panels for battery charging equipment, coordinate the efforts of solar panels, battery, load, monitoring, charging status, display panels for battery charging current, voltage and battery, can effectively prevent the battery overcharge, the function of the meter and the short circuit. 

The solar controller needs to coordinate the work of solar panels, batteries and loads, so as to ensure the stable work of the whole solar off-grid power generation system. At present, there are mainly two kinds of MPPT solar controller and PWM solar controller on the market.


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PWM solar controller 

PWM is the pulse width modulation, refers to the digital output of the microprocessor to control the analog circuit, is a digital coding method of the analog signal level. Digital control of analog circuits can greatly reduce the cost and power consumption of the system. 

The electrical structure of PWM solar controller is relatively simple, mainly consists of a power main switch, a capacitor, a drive and a protection circuit, which is actually equivalent to a switch, the component and the battery are connected together, the voltage of the component will be pulled down to the voltage of the battery pack.

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MPPT solar controller 

MPPT solar controller is more complex, the cost is also a little higher, the price is usually several times or tens of times the PWM solar controller, MPPT solar controller can adjust the input voltage, in order to get the maximum energy from the solar panel. The MPPT controller can detect the generation voltage of solar panels in real time and track the maximum voltage current value (VI), so that the system can charge the battery with the maximum power output. 

Compared with PWM solar controller, MPPT solar controller has the maximum power tracking function, during the charging can ensure that the solar panel is always the maximum power output, will not be affected by the temperature, from the charging efficiency, is naturally higher than PWM. In addition, PWM solar controller can only support the use of relevant voltage, such as 12V system panel can only support the use of 12V controller and battery, suitable for some small off-grid system below 2KW, simple structure, convenient user connection, the price is relatively cheap. 

And MPPT solar controller to use more space, under normal circumstances, the solar panel voltage between 12V-170V can be used, battery voltage 12-96V adjustable, applicability is stronger, suitable for more than 2KW large off-grid power generation system, high efficiency, component configuration is also more flexible.

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